Sunday, May 24, 2020

Freud s Theory Of Sexuality - 956 Words

Sigmund Freud is a very known psychologist from the early scholars of the psychology world. One of His most significant outlooks and study was in the sexology field. Sexology had already been constituted as a separate form of enquiry some time before the appearance of Freud’s most important contribution, The three essays on the theory of sexuality (1905) and many of the terms that we tend to identify with Freud, such as libido, component instincts, erotogenic zones, catharsis, autoerotism and narcissism were already in circulation. (Akroterion. 58, 79-96, Dec. 2013) Some have argued that Freud did not acknowledge the contribution of sexology to psychoanalysis sufficiently in his studies and findings. But others may find this statement as overstated. Further in my research you will read how Freud’s work contributed greatly to the sexology dialogue and psychosexual development. Sexology emerged in the 1860s as a new science that took sexuality as its main focus of investigation. (Akroterion. 58, 79-96, Dec. 2013) Freud along with a few other early psychologists emerged a group that would argue their divergent attitude about sexuality. Their attitudes derived from the Greek art and literature; which would challenge the medical and psychiatric definitions of normal and abnormal sexuality. Even though sexology was being considered a marginal field that was operated outside the mainstream disciplines of psychiatry and biology it grew rapidly between the years 1860 and 1933. Freud,Show MoreRelatedFreud s Theory Of Sexuality2091 Words   |  9 PagesFreudian theories are an interconnected web of propositions and concepts that aim to unravel the complex strands of human emotions and neurosis. Like other theories Freud’s can be unknotted and dissected, they have a beginning, middle and end, but most importantly they have a history. Freud, one of the fledgli ng fathers of psychoanalysis, was able to modify and add to alter the significance of some fragments of the human consciousness, though any particular idea, such as the Oedipus complex, cannotRead MoreFreud s Theory Of Human Sexuality1641 Words   |  7 Pagesof human sexuality can be developed through genetics, imitated through socialization, influenced by unconscious decisions or if it can be altered after childhood. There are a variety of theories that have been created to help understand the uncertainty of how human sexuality is developed. Uncovering the influence of neuroscience on sexuality and evaluating the appropriateness of Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory, Albert Bandura’s Modeling Theory and Carl Roger’s Person Centered Theory on addressingRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Sexuality, And The Interoperation Of Dreams1289 Words   |  6 Pages Sigmund Freud An Overview of Two Theories Jace Moselund Palm Beach State college 12/02/2015 â€Æ' Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia on May 6TH 1856 in a Jewish family. He later moved to Vienna where he later became known as the father of psychology. Freud earned his medical degree in 1881, and in 1882 he later became engaged and married to his wife which led to the birth of his 6 children. Only one of Freud’s children chose to follow his footsteps in the field of psychology. ThroughoutRead MoreFreud, S. on the Theory of Sexuality from his article The Transformations of Puberty in Three Essay on the Theory of Sexuality and other works1519 Words   |  7 PagesSigmund Freuds Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, written in 1905, attempted to trace the course of the development of the sexual instinct in human beings from infancy to maturity. This instinct is not simply an animal instinct but is specific to both human culture and the form of conscious and unconscious life we live within it. For Freud sexuality is infinitely complicated and far-reaching in its effects and forms the basis of self-identity and interactions. His Third Essay discusses theRead MoreThe Period Of Infantile Sexuality996 Words   |  4 Pagesto Frued the period of infantile sexuality as he describes is followed by the latency period, 6 to 11 years old, when children get educated according to the system by which their society is structured. He argues that the feeling of shame, disgust, morality and pity are developed into their ego during this stage to impede the sexual instincts. Because they are relatively later constructed, the infantile sexuality is then mostly in the form of perversion. As Freud terms, polymorphously pervert. WithRead MoreSons And Lovers By D. H. Lawrence901 Words   |  4 Pages His books were ahead of time, and he was quite influenced by Sigmund Freud. I believe that Freud really influenced lawrence’s writing during Chapters 6 and 7 when Paul is starting to get closer to females, and his mother did not want any other female to be i n Paul’s life other than herself, which is one of Freud s early theories on sexuality, and Sons and Lovers deeply explores and revises of one of Freud s major theories, the Oedipus complex, such as Paul truly and deeply loves his mother compareRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1568 Words   |  7 Pages Freud Sigmund Yifan Wang Current issues in history Vanier College 2014-11-11 Freud Sigmund In the 19th century, people progressed toward a new era of scientific revolution with new inventions and technologies. Doctors find treatment to heal cancer and people lives longer than before. On the other hand, Freud Sigmund the Jewish psychiatrist offered a new cure to mental illness that individual suffers from (The European Graduate School, 2012). Although he may have the most of influenceRead MorePsychoanalytic Personality Assessment1107 Words   |  4 Pagesview states that there exist inner forces outside a persons awareness, which direct the persons behavior. Modern psychology has been impacted greatly by the psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Jung, and Adler. These three psychoanalysts proposed many concepts and their theories are still been attempted. Their human mind theories changed the world. The three believed that in personality shaping childhood development and parenting played an important role. They also believed that daydreams and dreamsRead MoreInterview With Th e Personality Theorist1318 Words   |  6 Pagespersonality theorist. The four personality theorists included in this interview are; Horney, Erikson, Jung, and Adler. In this mocked interview, one will pretend to ask each theorist a combination of questions about the viewpoints of Sigmund Freud, and his daughter, Anna Freud. In addition, each theorist will explain what impact they believe their work has had on psychology as they see it today. Outline of Interview Interviewer: Kathleen Johnson (Student) Interviewees: Horney, Erikson, Jung, and Adler (PersonalityRead MoreSexuality In Bram Stokers Dracula1082 Words   |  5 PagesSexuality in Bram Stoker s DraculaBram Stoker s Dracula, favorably received by critics upon publication in 1897, entertained its Victorian audience with unspeakable horrors such as vampires invading bedrooms to prey on beautiful maidens under the guise of night. The novel s eroticism proved even more unspeakable. Received in the era of repression, it remains questionable whether Dracula s readership perceived the sexuality flowing from the page. An advocate for the censorship of sexual material

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Robber Barons By John Davison Rockefeller And Andrew Carnegie

Robber Barons such as John Davison Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie were a large part of the propelling force that led the United States into a new frontier, setting the standard for the American dream. These men were known for their ingenuity, intuition, and innovation as business men. Each setting a high standard in their field, these men set out to accomplish greatness by revolutionizing their industry. They were known in history as the first men to become giants of the industrialized world, they created a new ear, and with it legacies that have lasted centuries. John D. Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil company, and became one of the wealthiest men in the world, propelling America into a new frontier. In the 19th century, kerosene was highly demanded, and there were small kerosene manufacturing companies all over the United States. Rockefeller’s early life was no near the upbringing of a billionaire. His father began as a peddler working to make ends meet as his mother raised his brothers and sisters. He was given a $100 loan to buy a small boat, but by 1870, he established the Standard Oil company. In only 10 years, Rockefeller owned 90% of the U.S’s oil refineries. During this time, many accused Rockefeller as participating in unethical business practices. He collaborated with major railroads to eliminate his competition and used predatory pricing as well as horizontal integration to monopolize the entire oil industry. In 1886, Rockefeller took out a loan to buyShow MoreRelated19th Century s Famous Industrial Men : Robbe r Barons Or Captains Of Industry?1833 Words   |  8 Pagesmen: Robber Barons or Captains of Industry? By: Justine Wetten Advanced U.S. History Mr. Unis January 5th, 2015 Discuss whether the industrial leaders of the late nineteenth century are more accurately described as â€Å"captains of industry† or â€Å"robber barons†? A. Plan of Investigation This investigation will assess whether the industrial leaders, such as, Andrew Carnegie, John Pierpont Morgan and John Davison Rockefeller were perceivedRead MoreWho Were the Robber Barons? what was their impact on the economy today? who are some modern robber barons? What is a robber baron who are the three robber barons listed?2886 Words   |  12 PagesWho Were The Robber Barons?A friendship founded on business is better than a business founded on friendship. These words ring true in the ears of business owners and CEOs even today. Who was the man that spoke these words that still have thought and meaning today? Why, none other than John D. Rockefeller. Rockefeller was one of the many robber barons of the gilded age. In case you were wondering, a robber baron is a ruthlessly powerful U.S. capitalist or industrialist of the late 19th centuryRead MoreAndrew Carnegie, John Davison Rockefeller, and John Pierpont Morgan: Captains of Industry831 Words   |  4 Pagesbut society as well. Andrew Carnegie, John Davison Rockefeller, and John Pierpont Morgan reflect the mammoth industrial age of America. Although some may argue these industrialists were â€Å"robber barons,† these men were, in reality, â€Å"captains of industry† utilizing modern business practices and technology which provided both cheap products and job opportunities for the public, as well as becoming large-scale philanthropists and contributing much to American society. Carnegie became the head of theRead MoreJohn Rockefeller: American Business Mogul Essay901 Words   |  4 PagesJohn Davison Rockefeller was born on July 8th, 1839 in Richford, New York. He was the second born of six children in the family. His father, William Avery Rockefeller, was an entrepreneur of his own. He claimed to have the ability to cure patients with cancer and charged up to $25 per treatment. His mother was a very religious and well-organized woman. Growing up Rockefeller started his entrepreneurship career early by selling candy and doing jobs for his neighbors. Little did anyone know this

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Twilight Saga 3 Eclipse Chapter 13. NEWBORN Free Essays

string(117) " our history that will always be remembered, though there were very few witnesses left to speak of what it was like\." â€Å"THE SAME THING THAT HAPPENED TO YOUR HAND,† Jasper answered in a quiet voice. â€Å"Repeated a thousand times.† He laughed a little ruefully and brushed at his arm. We will write a custom essay sample on The Twilight Saga 3: Eclipse Chapter 13. NEWBORN or any similar topic only for you Order Now â€Å"Our venom is the only thing that leaves a scar.† â€Å"Why?† I breathed in horror, feeling rude but unable to stop staring at his subtly ravaged skin. â€Å"I didn’t have quite the same . . . upbringing as my adopted siblings here. My beginning was something else entirely.† His voice turned hard as he finished. I gaped at him, appalled. â€Å"Before I tell you my story,† Jasper said, â€Å"you must understand that there are places in our world, Bella, where the life span of the never-aging is measured in weeks, and not centuries.† The others had heard this before. Carlisle and Emmett turned their attention to the TV again. Alice moved silently to sit at Esme’s feet. But Edward was just as absorbed as I was; I could feel his eyes on my face, reading every flicker of emotion. â€Å"To really understand why, you have to look at the world from a different perspective. You have to imagine the way it looks to the powerful, the greedy . . . the perpetually thirsty. â€Å"You see, there are places in this world that are more desirable to us than others. Places where we can be less restrained, and still avoid detection. â€Å"Picture, for instance, a map of the western hemisphere. Picture on it every human life as a small red dot. The thicker the red, the more easily we – well, those who exist this way – can feed without attracting notice.† I shuddered at the image in my head, at the word feed. But Jasper wasn’t worried about frightening me, not overprotective like Edward always was. He went on without a pause. â€Å"Not that the covens in the South care much for what the humans notice or do not. It’s the Volturi that keep them in check. They are the only ones the southern covens fear. If not for the Volturi, the rest of us would be quickly exposed.† I frowned at the way he pronounced the name – with respect, almost gratitude. The idea of the Volturi as the good guys in any sense was hard to accept. â€Å"The North is, by comparison, very civilized. Mostly we are nomads here who enjoy the day as well as the night, who allow humans to interact with us unsuspectingly – anonymity is important to us all. â€Å"It’s a different world in the South. The immortals there come out only at night. They spend the day plotting their next move, or anticipating their enemy’s. Because it has been war in the South, constant war for centuries, with never one moment of truce. The covens there barely note the existence of humans, except as soldiers notice a herd of cows by the wayside – food for the taking. They only hide from the notice of the herd because of the Volturi.† â€Å"But what are they fighting for?† I asked. Jasper smiled. â€Å"Remember the map with the red dots?† He waited, so I nodded. â€Å"They fight for control of the thickest red. â€Å"You see, it occurred to someone once that, if he were the only vampire in, let’s say Mexico City, well then, he could feed every night, twice, three times, and no one would ever notice. He plotted ways to get rid of the competition. â€Å"Others had the same idea. Some came up with more effective tactics than others. â€Å"But the most effective tactic was invented by a fairly young vampire named Benito. The first anyone ever heard of him, he came down from somewhere north of Dallas and massacred the two small covens that shared the area near Houston. Two nights later, he took on the much stronger clan of allies that claimed Monterrey in northern Mexico. Again, he won.† â€Å"How did he win?† I asked with wary curiosity. â€Å"Benito had created an army of newborn vampires. He was the first one to think of it, and, in the beginning, he was unstoppable. Very young vampires are volatile, wild, and almost impossible to control. One newborn can be reasoned with, taught to restrain himself, but ten, fifteen together are a nightmare. They’ll turn on each other as easily as on the enemy you point them at. Benito had to keep making more as they fought amongst themselves, and as the covens he decimated took more than half his force down before they lost. â€Å"You see, though newborns are dangerous, they are still possible to defeat if you know what you’re doing. They’re incredibly powerful physically, for the first year or so, and if they’re allowed to bring strength to bear they can crush an older vampire with ease. But they are slaves to their instincts, and thus predictable. Usually, they have no skill in fighting, only muscle and ferocity. And in this case, overwhelming numbers.† â€Å"The vampires in southern Mexico realized what was coming for them, and they did the only thing they could think of to counteract Benito. They made armies of their own. . . . â€Å"All hell broke loose – and I mean that more literally than you can possibly imagine. We immortals have our histories, too, and this particular war will never be forgotten. Of course, it was not a good time to be human in Mexico, either.† I shuddered. â€Å"When the body count reached epidemic proportions – in fact, your histories blame a disease for the population slump – the Volturi finally stepped in. The entire guard came together and sought out every newborn in the bottom half of North America. Benito was entrenched in Puebla, building his army as quickly as he could in order to take on the prize – Mexico City. The Volturi started with him, and then moved on to the rest. â€Å"Anyone who was found with the newborns was executed immediately, and, since everyone was trying to protect themselves from Benito, Mexico was emptied of vampires for a time. â€Å"The Volturi were cleaning house for almost a year. This was another chapter of our history that will always be remembered, though there were very few witnesses left to speak of what it was like. You read "The Twilight Saga 3: Eclipse Chapter 13. NEWBORN" in category "Essay examples" I spoke to someone once who had, from a distance, watched what happened when they visited Culiacn.† Jasper shuddered. I realized that I had never before seen him either afraid or horrified. This was a first. â€Å"It was enough that the fever for conquest did not spread from the South. The rest of the world stayed sane. We owe the Volturi for our present way of life. â€Å"But when the Volturi went back to Italy, the survivors were quick to stake their claims in the South. â€Å"It didn’t take long before covens began to dispute again. There was a lot of bad blood, if you’ll forgive the expression. Vendettas abounded. The idea of newborns was already there, and some were not able to resist. However, the Volturi had not been forgotten, and the southern covens were more careful this time. The newborns were selected from the human pool with more care, and given more training. They were used circumspectly, and the humans remained, for the most part, oblivious. Their creators gave the Volturi no reason to return. â€Å"The wars resumed, but on a smaller scale. Every now and then, someone would go too far, speculation would begin in the human newspapers, and the Volturi would return and clean out the city. But they let the others, the careful ones, continue. . . .† Jasper was staring off into space. â€Å"That’s how you were changed.† My realization was a whisper. â€Å"Yes,† he agreed. â€Å"When I was human, I lived in Houston, Texas. I was almost seventeen years old when I joined the Confederate Army in 1861. I lied to the recruiters and told them I was twenty. I was tall enough to get away with it. â€Å"My military career was short-lived, but very promising. People always . . . liked me, listened to what I had to say. My father said it was charisma. Of course, now I know it was probably something more. But, whatever the reason, I was promoted quickly through the ranks, over older, more experienced men. The Confederate Army was new and scrambling to organize itself, so that provided opportunities, as well. By the first battle of Galveston – well, it was more of a skirmish, really – I was the youngest major in Texas, not even acknowledging my real age. â€Å"I was placed in charge of evacuating the women and children from the city when the Union’s mortar boats reached the harbor. It took a day to prepare them, and then I left with the first column of civilians to convey them to Houston. â€Å"I remember that one night very clearly. â€Å"We reached the city after dark. I stayed only long enough to make sure the entire party was safely situated. As soon as that was done, I got myself a fresh horse, and I headed back to Galveston. There wasn’t time to rest. â€Å"Just a mile outside the city, I found three women on foot. I assumed they were stragglers and dismounted at once to offer them my aid. But, when I could see their faces in the dim light of the moon, I was stunned into silence. They were, without question, the three most beautiful women I had ever seen. â€Å"They had such pale skin, I remember marveling at it. Even the little black-haired girl, whose features were clearly Mexican, was porcelain in the moonlight. They seemed young, all of them, still young enough to be called girls. I knew they were not lost members of our party. I would have remembered seeing these three. â€Å"‘He’s speechless,’ the tallest girl said in a lovely, delicate voice – it was like wind chimes. She had fair hair, and her skin was snow white. â€Å"The other was blonder still, her skin just as chalky. Her face was like an angel’s. She leaned toward me with half-closed eyes and inhaled deeply. â€Å"‘Mmm,’ she sighed. ‘Lovely.’ â€Å"The small one, the tiny brunette, put her hand on the girl’s arm and spoke quickly. Her voice was too soft and musical to be sharp, but that seemed to be the way she intended it. â€Å"‘Concentrate, Nettie,’ she said. â€Å"I’d always had a good sense of how people related to each other, and it was immediately clear that the brunette was somehow in charge of the others. If they’d been military, I would have said that she outranked them. â€Å"‘He looks right – young, strong, an officer. . . . ‘ The brunette paused, and I tried unsuccessfully to speak. ‘And there’s something more . . . do you sense it?’ she asked the other two. ‘He’s . . . compelling.’ â€Å"‘Oh, yes,’ Nettie quickly agreed, leaning toward me again. â€Å"‘Patience,’ the brunette cautioned her. ‘I want to keep this one.’ â€Å"Nettie frowned; she seemed annoyed. â€Å"‘You’d better do it, Maria,’ the taller blonde spoke again. ‘If he’s important to you. I kill them twice as often as I keep them.’ â€Å"‘Yes, I’ll do it,’ Maria agreed. ‘I really do like this one. Take Nettie away, will you? I don’t want to have to protect my back while I’m trying to focus.’ â€Å"My hair was standing up on the back of my neck, though I didn’t understand the meaning of anything the beautiful creatures were saying. My instincts told me that there was danger, that the angel had meant it when she spoke of killing, but my judgment overruled my instincts. I had not been taught to fear women, but to protect them. â€Å"‘Let’s hunt,’ Nettie agreed enthusiastically, reaching for the tall girl’s hand. They wheeled – they were so graceful! – and sprinted toward the city. They seemed to almost take flight, they were so fast – their white dresses blew out behind them like wings. I blinked in amazement, and they were gone. â€Å"I turned to stare at Maria, who was watching me curiously. â€Å"I’d never been superstitious in my life. Until that second, I’d never believed in ghosts or any other such nonsense. Suddenly, I was unsure. â€Å"‘What is your name, soldier?’ Maria asked me. â€Å"‘Major Jasper Whitlock, ma’am,’ I stammered, unable to be impolite to a female, even if she was a ghost. â€Å"‘I truly hope you survive, Jasper,’ she said in her gentle voice. ‘I have a good feeling about you.’ â€Å"She took a step closer, and inclined her head as if she were going to kiss me. I stood frozen in place, though my instincts were screaming at me to run.† Jasper paused, his face thoughtful. â€Å"A few days later,† he finally said, and I wasn’t sure if he had edited his story for my sake or because he was responding to the tension that even I could feel exuding from Edward, â€Å"I was introduced to my new life. â€Å"Their names were Maria, Nettie, and Lucy. They hadn’t been together long – Maria had rounded up the other two – all three were survivors of recently lost battles. Theirs was a partnership of convenience. Maria wanted revenge, and she wanted her territories back. The others were eager to increase their . . . herd lands, I suppose you could say. They were putting together an army, and going about it more carefully than was usual. It was Maria’s idea. She wanted a superior army, so she sought out specific humans who had potential. Then she gave us much more attention, more training than anyone else had bothered with. She taught us to fight, and she taught us to be invisible to the humans. When we did well, we were rewarded. . . .† He paused, editing again. â€Å"She was in a hurry, though. Maria knew that the massive strength of the newborn began to wane around the year mark, and she wanted to act while we were strong. â€Å"There were six of us when I joined Maria’s band. She added four more within a fortnight. We were all male – Maria wanted soldiers – and that made it slightly more difficult to keep from fighting amongst ourselves. I fought my first battles against my new comrades in arms. I was quicker than the others, better at combat. Maria was pleased with me, though put out that she had to keep replacing the ones I destroyed. I was rewarded often, and that made me stronger. â€Å"Maria was a good judge of character. She decided to put me in charge of the others – as if I were being promoted. It suited my nature exactly. The casualties went down dramatically, and our numbers swelled to hover around twenty. â€Å"This was considerable for the cautious times we lived in. My ability, as yet undefined, to control the emotional atmosphere around me was vitally effective. We soon began to work together in a way that newborn vampires had never cooperated before. Even Maria, Nettie, and Lucy were able to work together more easily. â€Å"Maria grew quite fond of me – she began to depend upon me. And, in some ways, I worshipped the ground she walked on. I had no idea that any other life was possible. Maria told us this was the way things were, and we believed. â€Å"She asked me to tell her when my brothers and I were ready to fight, and I was eager to prove myself. I pulled together an army of twenty-three in the end – twenty-three unbelievably strong new vampires, organized and skilled as no others before. Maria was ecstatic. â€Å"We crept down toward Monterrey, her former home, and she unleashed us on her enemies. They had only nine newborns at the time, and a pair of older vampires controlling them. We took them down more easily than Maria could believe, losing only four in the process. It was an unheard-of margin of victory. â€Å"And we were well trained. We did it without attracting notice. The city changed hands without any human being aware. â€Å"Success made Maria greedy. It wasn’t long before she began to eye other cities. That first year, she extended her control to cover most of Texas and northern Mexico. Then the others came from the South to dislodge her.† He brushed two fingers along the faint pattern of scars on his arm. â€Å"The fighting was intense. Many began to worry that the Volturi would return. Of the original twenty-three, I was the only one to survive the first eighteen months. We both won and lost. Nettie and Lucy turned on Maria eventually – but that one we won. â€Å"Maria and I were able to hold on to Monterrey. It quieted a little, though the wars continued. The idea of conquest was dying out; it was mostly vengeance and feuding now. So many had lost their partners, and that is something our kind does not forgive. . . . â€Å"Maria and I always kept a dozen or so newborns ready. They meant little to us – they were pawns, they were disposable. When they outgrew their usefulness, we did dispose of them. My life continued in the same violent pattern and the years passed. I was sick of it all for a very long time before anything changed . . . â€Å"Decades later, I developed a friendship with a newborn who’d remained useful and survived his first three years, against the odds. His name was Peter. I liked Peter; he was . . . civilized – I suppose that’s the right word. He didn’t enjoy the fight, though he was good at it. â€Å"He was assigned to deal with the newborns – babysit them, you could say. It was a full-time job. â€Å"And then it was time to purge again. The newborns were outgrowing their strength; they were due to be replaced. Peter was supposed to help me dispose of them. We took them aside individually, you see, one by one . . . It was always a very long night. This time, he tried to convince me that a few had potential, but Maria had instructed that we get rid of them all. I told him no. â€Å"We were about halfway through, and I could feel that it was taking a great toll on Peter. I was trying to decide whether or not I should send him away and finish up myself as I called out the next victim. To my surprise, he was suddenly angry, furious. I braced for whatever his mood might foreshadow – he was a good fighter, but he was never a match for me. â€Å"The newborn I’d summoned was a female, just past her year mark. Her name was Charlotte. His feelings changed when she came into view; they gave him away. He yelled for her to run, and he bolted after her. I could have pursued them, but I didn’t. I felt . . . averse to destroying him. â€Å"Maria was irritated with me for that . . . â€Å"Five years later, Peter snuck back for me. He picked a good day to arrive. â€Å"Maria was mystified by my ever-deteriorating frame of mind. She’d never felt a moment’s depression, and I wondered why I was different. I began to notice a change in her emotions when she was near me – sometimes there was fear . . . and malice – the same feelings that had given me advance warning when Nettie and Lucy struck. I was preparing myself to destroy my only ally, the core of my existence, when Peter returned. â€Å"Peter told me about his new life with Charlotte, told me about options I’d never dreamed I had. In five years, they’d never had a fight, though they’d met many others in the north. Others who could co-exist without the constant mayhem. â€Å"In one conversation, he had me convinced. I was ready to go, and somewhat relieved I wouldn’t have to kill Maria. I’d been her companion for as many years as Carlisle and Edward have been together, yet the bond between us was nowhere near as strong. When you live for the fight, for the blood, the relationships you form are tenuous and easily broken. I walked away without a backward glance. â€Å"I traveled with Peter and Charlotte for a few years, getting the feel of this new, more peaceful world. But the depression didn’t fade. I didn’t understand what was wrong with me, until Peter noticed that it was always worse after I’d hunted. â€Å"I contemplated that. In so many years of slaughter and carnage, I’d lost nearly all of my humanity. I was undeniably a nightmare, a monster of the grisliest kind. Yet each time I found another human victim, I would feel a faint prick of remembrance for that other life. Watching their eyes widen in wonder at my beauty, I could see Maria and the others in my head, what they had looked like to me the last night that I was Jasper Whitlock. It was stronger for me – this borrowed memory – than it was for anyone else, because I could feel everything my prey was feeling. And I lived their emotions as I killed them. â€Å"You’ve experienced the way I can manipulate the emotions around myself, Bella, but I wonder if you realize how the feelings in a room affect me. I live every day in a climate of emotion. For the first century of my life, I lived in a world of bloodthirsty vengeance. Hate was my constant companion. It eased some when I left Maria, but I still had to feel the horror and fear of my prey. â€Å"It began to be too much. â€Å"The depression got worse, and I wandered away from Peter and Charlotte. Civilized as they were, they didn’t feel the same aversion I was beginning to feel. They only wanted peace from the fight. I was so wearied by killing – killing anyone, even mere humans. â€Å"Yet I had to keep killing. What choice did I have? I tried to kill less often, but I would get too thirsty and I would give in. After a century of instant gratification, I found self-discipline . . . challenging. I still haven’t perfected that.† Jasper was lost in the story, as was I. It surprised me when his desolate expression smoothed into a peaceful smile. â€Å"I was in Philadelphia. There was a storm, and I was out during the day – something I was not completely comfortable with yet. I knew standing in the rain would attract attention, so I ducked into a little half-empty diner. My eyes were dark enough that no one would notice them, though this meant I was thirsty, and that worried me a little. â€Å"She was there – expecting me, naturally.† He chuckled once. â€Å"She hopped down from the high stool at the counter as soon as I walked in and came directly toward me. â€Å"It shocked me. I was not sure if she meant to attack. That’s the only interpretation of her behavior my past had to offer. But she was smiling. And the emotions that were emanating from her were like nothing I’d ever felt before. â€Å"‘You’ve kept me waiting a long time,’ she said.† I didn’t realize Alice had come to stand behind me again. â€Å"And you ducked your head, like a good Southern gentleman, and said, ‘I’m sorry, ma’am.'† Alice laughed at the memory. Jasper smiled down at her. â€Å"You held out your hand, and I took it without stopping to make sense of what I was doing. For the first time in almost a century, I felt hope.† Jasper took Alice’s hand as he spoke. Alice grinned. â€Å"I was just relieved. I thought you were never going to show up.† They smiled at each other for a long moment, and then Jasper looked back to me, the soft expression lingering. â€Å"Alice told me what she’d seen of Carlisle and his family. I could hardly believe that such an existence was possible. But Alice made me optimistic. So we went to find them.† â€Å"Scared the hell out of them, too,† Edward said, rolling his eyes at Jasper before turning to me to explain. â€Å"Emmett and I were away hunting. Jasper shows up, covered in battle scars, towing this little freak† – he nudged Alice playfully – â€Å"who greets them all by name, knows everything about them, and wants to know which room she can move into.† Alice and Jasper laughed in harmony, soprano and bass. â€Å"When I got home, all my things were in the garage,† Edward continued. Alice shrugged. â€Å"Your room had the best view.† They all laughed together now. â€Å"That’s a nice story,† I said. Three pairs of eyes questioned my sanity. â€Å"I mean the last part,† I defended myself. â€Å"The happy ending with Alice.† â€Å"Alice has made all the difference,† Jasper agreed. â€Å"This is a climate I enjoy.† But the momentary pause in the stress couldn’t last. â€Å"An army,† Alice whispered. â€Å"Why didn’t you tell me?† The others were intent again, their eyes locked on Jasper’s face. â€Å"I thought I must be interpreting the signs incorrectly. Because where is the motive? Why would someone create an army in Seattle? There is no history there, no vendetta. It makes no sense from a conquest standpoint, either; no one claims it. Nomads pass through, but there’s no one to fight for it. No one to defend it from. â€Å"But I’ve seen this before, and there’s no other explanation. There is an army of newborn vampires in Seattle. Fewer than twenty, I’d guess. The difficult part is that they are totally untrained. Whoever made them just set them loose. It will only get worse, and it won’t be much longer till the Volturi step in. Actually, I’m surprised they’ve let this go on so long.† â€Å"What can we do?† Carlisle asked. â€Å"If we want to avoid the Volturi’s involvement, we will have to destroy the newborns, and we will have to do it very soon.† Jasper’s face was hard. Knowing his story now, I could guess how this evaluation must disturb him. â€Å"I can teach you how. It won’t be easy in the city. The young ones aren’t concerned about secrecy, but we will have to be. It will limit us in ways that they are not. Maybe we can lure them out.† â€Å"Maybe we won’t have to.† Edward’s voice was bleak. â€Å"Does it occur to anyone else that the only possible threat in the area that would call for the creation of an army is . . . us?† Jasper’s eyes narrowed; Carlisle’s widened, shocked. â€Å"Tanya’s family is also near,† Esme said slowly, unwilling to accept Edward’s words. â€Å"The newborns aren’t ravaging Anchorage, Esme. I think we have to consider the idea that we are the targets.† â€Å"They’re not coming after us,† Alice insisted, and then paused. â€Å"Or . . . they don’t know that they are. Not yet.† â€Å"What is that?† Edward asked, curious and tense. â€Å"What are you remembering?† â€Å"Flickers,† Alice said. â€Å"I can’t see a clear picture when I try to see what’s going on, nothing concrete. But I’ve been getting these strange flashes. Not enough to make sense of. It’s as if someone’s changing their mind, moving from one course of action to another so quickly that I can’t get a good view. . . .† â€Å"Indecision?† Jasper asked in disbelief. â€Å"I don’t know. . . .† â€Å"Not indecision,† Edward growled. â€Å"Knowledge. Someone who knows you can’t see anything until the decision is made. Someone who is hiding from us. Playing with the holes in your vision.† â€Å"Who would know that?† Alice whispered. Edward’s eyes were hard as ice. â€Å"Aro knows you as well as you know yourself.† â€Å"But I would see if they’d decided to come. . . .† â€Å"Unless they didn’t want to get their hands dirty.† â€Å"A favor,† Rosalie suggested, speaking for the first time. â€Å"Someone in the South . . . someone who already had trouble with the rules. Someone who should have been destroyed is offered a second chance – if they take care of this one small problem. . . . That would explain the Volturi’s sluggish response.† â€Å"Why?† Carlisle asked, still shocked. â€Å"There’s no reason for the Volturi -â€Å" â€Å"It was there,† Edward disagreed quietly. â€Å"I’m surprised it’s come to this so soon, because the other thoughts were stronger. In Aro’s head he saw me at his one side and Alice at his other. The present and the future, virtual omniscience. The power of the idea intoxicated him. I would have thought it would take him much longer to give up on that plan – he wanted it too much. But there was also the thought of you, Carlisle, of our family, growing stronger and larger. The jealousy and the fear: you having . . . not more than he had, but still, things that he wanted. He tried not to think about it, but he couldn’t hide it completely. The idea of rooting out the competition was there; besides their own, ours is the largest coven they’ve ever found. . . .† I stared at his face in horror. He’d never told me this, but I guessed I knew why. I could see it in my head now, Aro’s dream. Edward and Alice in black, flowing robes, drifting along at Aro’s side with their eyes cold and blood-red. . . . Carlisle interrupted my waking nightmare. â€Å"They’re too committed to their mission. They would never break the rules themselves. It goes against everything they’ve worked for.† â€Å"They’ll clean up afterward. A double betrayal,† Edward said in a grim voice. â€Å"No harm done.† Jasper leaned forward, shaking his head. â€Å"No, Carlisle is right. The Volturi do not break rules. Besides, it’s much too sloppy. This . . . person, this threat – they have no idea what they’re doing. A first-timer, I’d swear to it. I cannot believe the Volturi are involved. But they will be.† They all stared at each other, frozen with stress. â€Å"Then let’s go,† Emmett almost roared. â€Å"What are we waiting for?† Carlisle and Edward exchanged a long glance. Edward nodded once. â€Å"We’ll need you to teach us, Jasper,† Carlisle finally said. â€Å"How to destroy them.† Carlisle’s jaw was hard, but I could see the pain in his eyes as he said the words. No one hated violence more than Carlisle. There was something bothering me, and I couldn’t put my finger on it. I was numb, horrified, deathly afraid. And yet, under that, I could feel that I was missing something important. Something that would make some sense out of the chaos. That would explain it. â€Å"We’re going to need help,† Jasper said. â€Å"Do you think Tanya’s family would be willing . . . ? Another five mature vampires would make an enormous difference. And then Kate and Eleazar would be especially advantageous on our side. It would be almost easy, with their aid.† â€Å"We’ll ask,† Carlisle answered. Jasper held out a cell phone. â€Å"We need to hurry.† I’d never seen Carlisle’s innate calm so shaken. He took the phone, and paced toward the windows. He dialed a number, held the phone to his ear, and laid the other hand against the glass. He stared out into the foggy morning with a pained and ambivalent expression. Edward took my hand and pulled me to the white loveseat. I sat beside him, staring at his face while he stared at Carlisle. Carlisle’s voice was low and quick, difficult to hear. I heard him greet Tanya, and then he raced through the situation too fast for me to understand much, though I could tell that the Alaskan vampires were not ignorant of what was going on in Seattle. Then something changed in Carlisle’s voice. â€Å"Oh,† he said, his voice sharper in surprise. â€Å"We didn’t realize . . . that Irina felt that way.† Edward groaned at my side and closed his eyes. â€Å"Damn it. Damn Laurent to the deepest pit of hell where he belongs.† â€Å"Laurent?† I whispered, the blood emptying from my face, but Edward didn’t respond, focused on Carlisle’s thoughts. My short encounter with Laurent early this spring was not something that had faded or dimmed in my mind. I still remembered every word he’d said before Jacob and his pack had interrupted. I actually came here as a favor to her. . . . Victoria. Laurent had been her first maneuver – she’d sent him to observe, to see how hard it might be to get to me. He hadn’t survived the wolves to report back. Though he’d kept up his old ties with Victoria after James’s death, he’d also formed new ties and new relationships. He’d gone to live with Tanya’s family in Alaska – Tanya the strawberry blonde – the closest friends the Cullens had in the vampire world, practically extended family. Laurent had been with them for almost a year previous to his death. Carlisle was still talking, his voice not quite pleading. Persuasive, but with an edge. Then the edge abruptly won out over the persuasion. â€Å"There’s no question of that,† Carlisle said in a stern voice. â€Å"We have a truce. They haven’t broken it, and neither will we. I’m sorry to hear that. . . . Of course. We’ll just have to do our best alone.† Carlisle shut the phone without waiting for an answer. He continued to stare out into the fog. â€Å"What’s the problem?† Emmett murmured to Edward. â€Å"Irina was more involved with our friend Laurent than we knew. She’s holding a grudge against the wolves for destroying him to save Bella. She wants -† He paused, looking down at me. â€Å"Go on,† I said as evenly as I could. His eyes tightened. â€Å"She wants revenge. To take down the pack. They would trade their help for our permission.† â€Å"No!† I gasped. â€Å"Don’t worry,† he told me in a flat voice. â€Å"Carlisle would never agree to it.† He hesitated, then sighed. â€Å"Nor would I. Laurent had it coming† – this was almost a growl – â€Å"and I still owe the wolves for that.† â€Å"This isn’t good,† Jasper said. â€Å"It’s too even a fight. We’d have the upper hand in skill, but not numbers. We’d win, but at what price?† His tense eyes flashed to Alice’s face and away. I wanted to scream out loud as I grasped what Jasper meant. We would win, but we would lose. Some wouldn’t survive. I looked around the room at their faces – Jasper, Alice, Emmett, Rose, Esme, Carlisle . . . Edward – the faces of my family. How to cite The Twilight Saga 3: Eclipse Chapter 13. NEWBORN, Essay examples

The Twilight Saga 3 Eclipse Chapter 13. NEWBORN Free Essays

string(117) " our history that will always be remembered, though there were very few witnesses left to speak of what it was like\." â€Å"THE SAME THING THAT HAPPENED TO YOUR HAND,† Jasper answered in a quiet voice. â€Å"Repeated a thousand times.† He laughed a little ruefully and brushed at his arm. We will write a custom essay sample on The Twilight Saga 3: Eclipse Chapter 13. NEWBORN or any similar topic only for you Order Now â€Å"Our venom is the only thing that leaves a scar.† â€Å"Why?† I breathed in horror, feeling rude but unable to stop staring at his subtly ravaged skin. â€Å"I didn’t have quite the same . . . upbringing as my adopted siblings here. My beginning was something else entirely.† His voice turned hard as he finished. I gaped at him, appalled. â€Å"Before I tell you my story,† Jasper said, â€Å"you must understand that there are places in our world, Bella, where the life span of the never-aging is measured in weeks, and not centuries.† The others had heard this before. Carlisle and Emmett turned their attention to the TV again. Alice moved silently to sit at Esme’s feet. But Edward was just as absorbed as I was; I could feel his eyes on my face, reading every flicker of emotion. â€Å"To really understand why, you have to look at the world from a different perspective. You have to imagine the way it looks to the powerful, the greedy . . . the perpetually thirsty. â€Å"You see, there are places in this world that are more desirable to us than others. Places where we can be less restrained, and still avoid detection. â€Å"Picture, for instance, a map of the western hemisphere. Picture on it every human life as a small red dot. The thicker the red, the more easily we – well, those who exist this way – can feed without attracting notice.† I shuddered at the image in my head, at the word feed. But Jasper wasn’t worried about frightening me, not overprotective like Edward always was. He went on without a pause. â€Å"Not that the covens in the South care much for what the humans notice or do not. It’s the Volturi that keep them in check. They are the only ones the southern covens fear. If not for the Volturi, the rest of us would be quickly exposed.† I frowned at the way he pronounced the name – with respect, almost gratitude. The idea of the Volturi as the good guys in any sense was hard to accept. â€Å"The North is, by comparison, very civilized. Mostly we are nomads here who enjoy the day as well as the night, who allow humans to interact with us unsuspectingly – anonymity is important to us all. â€Å"It’s a different world in the South. The immortals there come out only at night. They spend the day plotting their next move, or anticipating their enemy’s. Because it has been war in the South, constant war for centuries, with never one moment of truce. The covens there barely note the existence of humans, except as soldiers notice a herd of cows by the wayside – food for the taking. They only hide from the notice of the herd because of the Volturi.† â€Å"But what are they fighting for?† I asked. Jasper smiled. â€Å"Remember the map with the red dots?† He waited, so I nodded. â€Å"They fight for control of the thickest red. â€Å"You see, it occurred to someone once that, if he were the only vampire in, let’s say Mexico City, well then, he could feed every night, twice, three times, and no one would ever notice. He plotted ways to get rid of the competition. â€Å"Others had the same idea. Some came up with more effective tactics than others. â€Å"But the most effective tactic was invented by a fairly young vampire named Benito. The first anyone ever heard of him, he came down from somewhere north of Dallas and massacred the two small covens that shared the area near Houston. Two nights later, he took on the much stronger clan of allies that claimed Monterrey in northern Mexico. Again, he won.† â€Å"How did he win?† I asked with wary curiosity. â€Å"Benito had created an army of newborn vampires. He was the first one to think of it, and, in the beginning, he was unstoppable. Very young vampires are volatile, wild, and almost impossible to control. One newborn can be reasoned with, taught to restrain himself, but ten, fifteen together are a nightmare. They’ll turn on each other as easily as on the enemy you point them at. Benito had to keep making more as they fought amongst themselves, and as the covens he decimated took more than half his force down before they lost. â€Å"You see, though newborns are dangerous, they are still possible to defeat if you know what you’re doing. They’re incredibly powerful physically, for the first year or so, and if they’re allowed to bring strength to bear they can crush an older vampire with ease. But they are slaves to their instincts, and thus predictable. Usually, they have no skill in fighting, only muscle and ferocity. And in this case, overwhelming numbers.† â€Å"The vampires in southern Mexico realized what was coming for them, and they did the only thing they could think of to counteract Benito. They made armies of their own. . . . â€Å"All hell broke loose – and I mean that more literally than you can possibly imagine. We immortals have our histories, too, and this particular war will never be forgotten. Of course, it was not a good time to be human in Mexico, either.† I shuddered. â€Å"When the body count reached epidemic proportions – in fact, your histories blame a disease for the population slump – the Volturi finally stepped in. The entire guard came together and sought out every newborn in the bottom half of North America. Benito was entrenched in Puebla, building his army as quickly as he could in order to take on the prize – Mexico City. The Volturi started with him, and then moved on to the rest. â€Å"Anyone who was found with the newborns was executed immediately, and, since everyone was trying to protect themselves from Benito, Mexico was emptied of vampires for a time. â€Å"The Volturi were cleaning house for almost a year. This was another chapter of our history that will always be remembered, though there were very few witnesses left to speak of what it was like. You read "The Twilight Saga 3: Eclipse Chapter 13. NEWBORN" in category "Essay examples" I spoke to someone once who had, from a distance, watched what happened when they visited Culiacn.† Jasper shuddered. I realized that I had never before seen him either afraid or horrified. This was a first. â€Å"It was enough that the fever for conquest did not spread from the South. The rest of the world stayed sane. We owe the Volturi for our present way of life. â€Å"But when the Volturi went back to Italy, the survivors were quick to stake their claims in the South. â€Å"It didn’t take long before covens began to dispute again. There was a lot of bad blood, if you’ll forgive the expression. Vendettas abounded. The idea of newborns was already there, and some were not able to resist. However, the Volturi had not been forgotten, and the southern covens were more careful this time. The newborns were selected from the human pool with more care, and given more training. They were used circumspectly, and the humans remained, for the most part, oblivious. Their creators gave the Volturi no reason to return. â€Å"The wars resumed, but on a smaller scale. Every now and then, someone would go too far, speculation would begin in the human newspapers, and the Volturi would return and clean out the city. But they let the others, the careful ones, continue. . . .† Jasper was staring off into space. â€Å"That’s how you were changed.† My realization was a whisper. â€Å"Yes,† he agreed. â€Å"When I was human, I lived in Houston, Texas. I was almost seventeen years old when I joined the Confederate Army in 1861. I lied to the recruiters and told them I was twenty. I was tall enough to get away with it. â€Å"My military career was short-lived, but very promising. People always . . . liked me, listened to what I had to say. My father said it was charisma. Of course, now I know it was probably something more. But, whatever the reason, I was promoted quickly through the ranks, over older, more experienced men. The Confederate Army was new and scrambling to organize itself, so that provided opportunities, as well. By the first battle of Galveston – well, it was more of a skirmish, really – I was the youngest major in Texas, not even acknowledging my real age. â€Å"I was placed in charge of evacuating the women and children from the city when the Union’s mortar boats reached the harbor. It took a day to prepare them, and then I left with the first column of civilians to convey them to Houston. â€Å"I remember that one night very clearly. â€Å"We reached the city after dark. I stayed only long enough to make sure the entire party was safely situated. As soon as that was done, I got myself a fresh horse, and I headed back to Galveston. There wasn’t time to rest. â€Å"Just a mile outside the city, I found three women on foot. I assumed they were stragglers and dismounted at once to offer them my aid. But, when I could see their faces in the dim light of the moon, I was stunned into silence. They were, without question, the three most beautiful women I had ever seen. â€Å"They had such pale skin, I remember marveling at it. Even the little black-haired girl, whose features were clearly Mexican, was porcelain in the moonlight. They seemed young, all of them, still young enough to be called girls. I knew they were not lost members of our party. I would have remembered seeing these three. â€Å"‘He’s speechless,’ the tallest girl said in a lovely, delicate voice – it was like wind chimes. She had fair hair, and her skin was snow white. â€Å"The other was blonder still, her skin just as chalky. Her face was like an angel’s. She leaned toward me with half-closed eyes and inhaled deeply. â€Å"‘Mmm,’ she sighed. ‘Lovely.’ â€Å"The small one, the tiny brunette, put her hand on the girl’s arm and spoke quickly. Her voice was too soft and musical to be sharp, but that seemed to be the way she intended it. â€Å"‘Concentrate, Nettie,’ she said. â€Å"I’d always had a good sense of how people related to each other, and it was immediately clear that the brunette was somehow in charge of the others. If they’d been military, I would have said that she outranked them. â€Å"‘He looks right – young, strong, an officer. . . . ‘ The brunette paused, and I tried unsuccessfully to speak. ‘And there’s something more . . . do you sense it?’ she asked the other two. ‘He’s . . . compelling.’ â€Å"‘Oh, yes,’ Nettie quickly agreed, leaning toward me again. â€Å"‘Patience,’ the brunette cautioned her. ‘I want to keep this one.’ â€Å"Nettie frowned; she seemed annoyed. â€Å"‘You’d better do it, Maria,’ the taller blonde spoke again. ‘If he’s important to you. I kill them twice as often as I keep them.’ â€Å"‘Yes, I’ll do it,’ Maria agreed. ‘I really do like this one. Take Nettie away, will you? I don’t want to have to protect my back while I’m trying to focus.’ â€Å"My hair was standing up on the back of my neck, though I didn’t understand the meaning of anything the beautiful creatures were saying. My instincts told me that there was danger, that the angel had meant it when she spoke of killing, but my judgment overruled my instincts. I had not been taught to fear women, but to protect them. â€Å"‘Let’s hunt,’ Nettie agreed enthusiastically, reaching for the tall girl’s hand. They wheeled – they were so graceful! – and sprinted toward the city. They seemed to almost take flight, they were so fast – their white dresses blew out behind them like wings. I blinked in amazement, and they were gone. â€Å"I turned to stare at Maria, who was watching me curiously. â€Å"I’d never been superstitious in my life. Until that second, I’d never believed in ghosts or any other such nonsense. Suddenly, I was unsure. â€Å"‘What is your name, soldier?’ Maria asked me. â€Å"‘Major Jasper Whitlock, ma’am,’ I stammered, unable to be impolite to a female, even if she was a ghost. â€Å"‘I truly hope you survive, Jasper,’ she said in her gentle voice. ‘I have a good feeling about you.’ â€Å"She took a step closer, and inclined her head as if she were going to kiss me. I stood frozen in place, though my instincts were screaming at me to run.† Jasper paused, his face thoughtful. â€Å"A few days later,† he finally said, and I wasn’t sure if he had edited his story for my sake or because he was responding to the tension that even I could feel exuding from Edward, â€Å"I was introduced to my new life. â€Å"Their names were Maria, Nettie, and Lucy. They hadn’t been together long – Maria had rounded up the other two – all three were survivors of recently lost battles. Theirs was a partnership of convenience. Maria wanted revenge, and she wanted her territories back. The others were eager to increase their . . . herd lands, I suppose you could say. They were putting together an army, and going about it more carefully than was usual. It was Maria’s idea. She wanted a superior army, so she sought out specific humans who had potential. Then she gave us much more attention, more training than anyone else had bothered with. She taught us to fight, and she taught us to be invisible to the humans. When we did well, we were rewarded. . . .† He paused, editing again. â€Å"She was in a hurry, though. Maria knew that the massive strength of the newborn began to wane around the year mark, and she wanted to act while we were strong. â€Å"There were six of us when I joined Maria’s band. She added four more within a fortnight. We were all male – Maria wanted soldiers – and that made it slightly more difficult to keep from fighting amongst ourselves. I fought my first battles against my new comrades in arms. I was quicker than the others, better at combat. Maria was pleased with me, though put out that she had to keep replacing the ones I destroyed. I was rewarded often, and that made me stronger. â€Å"Maria was a good judge of character. She decided to put me in charge of the others – as if I were being promoted. It suited my nature exactly. The casualties went down dramatically, and our numbers swelled to hover around twenty. â€Å"This was considerable for the cautious times we lived in. My ability, as yet undefined, to control the emotional atmosphere around me was vitally effective. We soon began to work together in a way that newborn vampires had never cooperated before. Even Maria, Nettie, and Lucy were able to work together more easily. â€Å"Maria grew quite fond of me – she began to depend upon me. And, in some ways, I worshipped the ground she walked on. I had no idea that any other life was possible. Maria told us this was the way things were, and we believed. â€Å"She asked me to tell her when my brothers and I were ready to fight, and I was eager to prove myself. I pulled together an army of twenty-three in the end – twenty-three unbelievably strong new vampires, organized and skilled as no others before. Maria was ecstatic. â€Å"We crept down toward Monterrey, her former home, and she unleashed us on her enemies. They had only nine newborns at the time, and a pair of older vampires controlling them. We took them down more easily than Maria could believe, losing only four in the process. It was an unheard-of margin of victory. â€Å"And we were well trained. We did it without attracting notice. The city changed hands without any human being aware. â€Å"Success made Maria greedy. It wasn’t long before she began to eye other cities. That first year, she extended her control to cover most of Texas and northern Mexico. Then the others came from the South to dislodge her.† He brushed two fingers along the faint pattern of scars on his arm. â€Å"The fighting was intense. Many began to worry that the Volturi would return. Of the original twenty-three, I was the only one to survive the first eighteen months. We both won and lost. Nettie and Lucy turned on Maria eventually – but that one we won. â€Å"Maria and I were able to hold on to Monterrey. It quieted a little, though the wars continued. The idea of conquest was dying out; it was mostly vengeance and feuding now. So many had lost their partners, and that is something our kind does not forgive. . . . â€Å"Maria and I always kept a dozen or so newborns ready. They meant little to us – they were pawns, they were disposable. When they outgrew their usefulness, we did dispose of them. My life continued in the same violent pattern and the years passed. I was sick of it all for a very long time before anything changed . . . â€Å"Decades later, I developed a friendship with a newborn who’d remained useful and survived his first three years, against the odds. His name was Peter. I liked Peter; he was . . . civilized – I suppose that’s the right word. He didn’t enjoy the fight, though he was good at it. â€Å"He was assigned to deal with the newborns – babysit them, you could say. It was a full-time job. â€Å"And then it was time to purge again. The newborns were outgrowing their strength; they were due to be replaced. Peter was supposed to help me dispose of them. We took them aside individually, you see, one by one . . . It was always a very long night. This time, he tried to convince me that a few had potential, but Maria had instructed that we get rid of them all. I told him no. â€Å"We were about halfway through, and I could feel that it was taking a great toll on Peter. I was trying to decide whether or not I should send him away and finish up myself as I called out the next victim. To my surprise, he was suddenly angry, furious. I braced for whatever his mood might foreshadow – he was a good fighter, but he was never a match for me. â€Å"The newborn I’d summoned was a female, just past her year mark. Her name was Charlotte. His feelings changed when she came into view; they gave him away. He yelled for her to run, and he bolted after her. I could have pursued them, but I didn’t. I felt . . . averse to destroying him. â€Å"Maria was irritated with me for that . . . â€Å"Five years later, Peter snuck back for me. He picked a good day to arrive. â€Å"Maria was mystified by my ever-deteriorating frame of mind. She’d never felt a moment’s depression, and I wondered why I was different. I began to notice a change in her emotions when she was near me – sometimes there was fear . . . and malice – the same feelings that had given me advance warning when Nettie and Lucy struck. I was preparing myself to destroy my only ally, the core of my existence, when Peter returned. â€Å"Peter told me about his new life with Charlotte, told me about options I’d never dreamed I had. In five years, they’d never had a fight, though they’d met many others in the north. Others who could co-exist without the constant mayhem. â€Å"In one conversation, he had me convinced. I was ready to go, and somewhat relieved I wouldn’t have to kill Maria. I’d been her companion for as many years as Carlisle and Edward have been together, yet the bond between us was nowhere near as strong. When you live for the fight, for the blood, the relationships you form are tenuous and easily broken. I walked away without a backward glance. â€Å"I traveled with Peter and Charlotte for a few years, getting the feel of this new, more peaceful world. But the depression didn’t fade. I didn’t understand what was wrong with me, until Peter noticed that it was always worse after I’d hunted. â€Å"I contemplated that. In so many years of slaughter and carnage, I’d lost nearly all of my humanity. I was undeniably a nightmare, a monster of the grisliest kind. Yet each time I found another human victim, I would feel a faint prick of remembrance for that other life. Watching their eyes widen in wonder at my beauty, I could see Maria and the others in my head, what they had looked like to me the last night that I was Jasper Whitlock. It was stronger for me – this borrowed memory – than it was for anyone else, because I could feel everything my prey was feeling. And I lived their emotions as I killed them. â€Å"You’ve experienced the way I can manipulate the emotions around myself, Bella, but I wonder if you realize how the feelings in a room affect me. I live every day in a climate of emotion. For the first century of my life, I lived in a world of bloodthirsty vengeance. Hate was my constant companion. It eased some when I left Maria, but I still had to feel the horror and fear of my prey. â€Å"It began to be too much. â€Å"The depression got worse, and I wandered away from Peter and Charlotte. Civilized as they were, they didn’t feel the same aversion I was beginning to feel. They only wanted peace from the fight. I was so wearied by killing – killing anyone, even mere humans. â€Å"Yet I had to keep killing. What choice did I have? I tried to kill less often, but I would get too thirsty and I would give in. After a century of instant gratification, I found self-discipline . . . challenging. I still haven’t perfected that.† Jasper was lost in the story, as was I. It surprised me when his desolate expression smoothed into a peaceful smile. â€Å"I was in Philadelphia. There was a storm, and I was out during the day – something I was not completely comfortable with yet. I knew standing in the rain would attract attention, so I ducked into a little half-empty diner. My eyes were dark enough that no one would notice them, though this meant I was thirsty, and that worried me a little. â€Å"She was there – expecting me, naturally.† He chuckled once. â€Å"She hopped down from the high stool at the counter as soon as I walked in and came directly toward me. â€Å"It shocked me. I was not sure if she meant to attack. That’s the only interpretation of her behavior my past had to offer. But she was smiling. And the emotions that were emanating from her were like nothing I’d ever felt before. â€Å"‘You’ve kept me waiting a long time,’ she said.† I didn’t realize Alice had come to stand behind me again. â€Å"And you ducked your head, like a good Southern gentleman, and said, ‘I’m sorry, ma’am.'† Alice laughed at the memory. Jasper smiled down at her. â€Å"You held out your hand, and I took it without stopping to make sense of what I was doing. For the first time in almost a century, I felt hope.† Jasper took Alice’s hand as he spoke. Alice grinned. â€Å"I was just relieved. I thought you were never going to show up.† They smiled at each other for a long moment, and then Jasper looked back to me, the soft expression lingering. â€Å"Alice told me what she’d seen of Carlisle and his family. I could hardly believe that such an existence was possible. But Alice made me optimistic. So we went to find them.† â€Å"Scared the hell out of them, too,† Edward said, rolling his eyes at Jasper before turning to me to explain. â€Å"Emmett and I were away hunting. Jasper shows up, covered in battle scars, towing this little freak† – he nudged Alice playfully – â€Å"who greets them all by name, knows everything about them, and wants to know which room she can move into.† Alice and Jasper laughed in harmony, soprano and bass. â€Å"When I got home, all my things were in the garage,† Edward continued. Alice shrugged. â€Å"Your room had the best view.† They all laughed together now. â€Å"That’s a nice story,† I said. Three pairs of eyes questioned my sanity. â€Å"I mean the last part,† I defended myself. â€Å"The happy ending with Alice.† â€Å"Alice has made all the difference,† Jasper agreed. â€Å"This is a climate I enjoy.† But the momentary pause in the stress couldn’t last. â€Å"An army,† Alice whispered. â€Å"Why didn’t you tell me?† The others were intent again, their eyes locked on Jasper’s face. â€Å"I thought I must be interpreting the signs incorrectly. Because where is the motive? Why would someone create an army in Seattle? There is no history there, no vendetta. It makes no sense from a conquest standpoint, either; no one claims it. Nomads pass through, but there’s no one to fight for it. No one to defend it from. â€Å"But I’ve seen this before, and there’s no other explanation. There is an army of newborn vampires in Seattle. Fewer than twenty, I’d guess. The difficult part is that they are totally untrained. Whoever made them just set them loose. It will only get worse, and it won’t be much longer till the Volturi step in. Actually, I’m surprised they’ve let this go on so long.† â€Å"What can we do?† Carlisle asked. â€Å"If we want to avoid the Volturi’s involvement, we will have to destroy the newborns, and we will have to do it very soon.† Jasper’s face was hard. Knowing his story now, I could guess how this evaluation must disturb him. â€Å"I can teach you how. It won’t be easy in the city. The young ones aren’t concerned about secrecy, but we will have to be. It will limit us in ways that they are not. Maybe we can lure them out.† â€Å"Maybe we won’t have to.† Edward’s voice was bleak. â€Å"Does it occur to anyone else that the only possible threat in the area that would call for the creation of an army is . . . us?† Jasper’s eyes narrowed; Carlisle’s widened, shocked. â€Å"Tanya’s family is also near,† Esme said slowly, unwilling to accept Edward’s words. â€Å"The newborns aren’t ravaging Anchorage, Esme. I think we have to consider the idea that we are the targets.† â€Å"They’re not coming after us,† Alice insisted, and then paused. â€Å"Or . . . they don’t know that they are. Not yet.† â€Å"What is that?† Edward asked, curious and tense. â€Å"What are you remembering?† â€Å"Flickers,† Alice said. â€Å"I can’t see a clear picture when I try to see what’s going on, nothing concrete. But I’ve been getting these strange flashes. Not enough to make sense of. It’s as if someone’s changing their mind, moving from one course of action to another so quickly that I can’t get a good view. . . .† â€Å"Indecision?† Jasper asked in disbelief. â€Å"I don’t know. . . .† â€Å"Not indecision,† Edward growled. â€Å"Knowledge. Someone who knows you can’t see anything until the decision is made. Someone who is hiding from us. Playing with the holes in your vision.† â€Å"Who would know that?† Alice whispered. Edward’s eyes were hard as ice. â€Å"Aro knows you as well as you know yourself.† â€Å"But I would see if they’d decided to come. . . .† â€Å"Unless they didn’t want to get their hands dirty.† â€Å"A favor,† Rosalie suggested, speaking for the first time. â€Å"Someone in the South . . . someone who already had trouble with the rules. Someone who should have been destroyed is offered a second chance – if they take care of this one small problem. . . . That would explain the Volturi’s sluggish response.† â€Å"Why?† Carlisle asked, still shocked. â€Å"There’s no reason for the Volturi -â€Å" â€Å"It was there,† Edward disagreed quietly. â€Å"I’m surprised it’s come to this so soon, because the other thoughts were stronger. In Aro’s head he saw me at his one side and Alice at his other. The present and the future, virtual omniscience. The power of the idea intoxicated him. I would have thought it would take him much longer to give up on that plan – he wanted it too much. But there was also the thought of you, Carlisle, of our family, growing stronger and larger. The jealousy and the fear: you having . . . not more than he had, but still, things that he wanted. He tried not to think about it, but he couldn’t hide it completely. The idea of rooting out the competition was there; besides their own, ours is the largest coven they’ve ever found. . . .† I stared at his face in horror. He’d never told me this, but I guessed I knew why. I could see it in my head now, Aro’s dream. Edward and Alice in black, flowing robes, drifting along at Aro’s side with their eyes cold and blood-red. . . . Carlisle interrupted my waking nightmare. â€Å"They’re too committed to their mission. They would never break the rules themselves. It goes against everything they’ve worked for.† â€Å"They’ll clean up afterward. A double betrayal,† Edward said in a grim voice. â€Å"No harm done.† Jasper leaned forward, shaking his head. â€Å"No, Carlisle is right. The Volturi do not break rules. Besides, it’s much too sloppy. This . . . person, this threat – they have no idea what they’re doing. A first-timer, I’d swear to it. I cannot believe the Volturi are involved. But they will be.† They all stared at each other, frozen with stress. â€Å"Then let’s go,† Emmett almost roared. â€Å"What are we waiting for?† Carlisle and Edward exchanged a long glance. Edward nodded once. â€Å"We’ll need you to teach us, Jasper,† Carlisle finally said. â€Å"How to destroy them.† Carlisle’s jaw was hard, but I could see the pain in his eyes as he said the words. No one hated violence more than Carlisle. There was something bothering me, and I couldn’t put my finger on it. I was numb, horrified, deathly afraid. And yet, under that, I could feel that I was missing something important. Something that would make some sense out of the chaos. That would explain it. â€Å"We’re going to need help,† Jasper said. â€Å"Do you think Tanya’s family would be willing . . . ? Another five mature vampires would make an enormous difference. And then Kate and Eleazar would be especially advantageous on our side. It would be almost easy, with their aid.† â€Å"We’ll ask,† Carlisle answered. Jasper held out a cell phone. â€Å"We need to hurry.† I’d never seen Carlisle’s innate calm so shaken. He took the phone, and paced toward the windows. He dialed a number, held the phone to his ear, and laid the other hand against the glass. He stared out into the foggy morning with a pained and ambivalent expression. Edward took my hand and pulled me to the white loveseat. I sat beside him, staring at his face while he stared at Carlisle. Carlisle’s voice was low and quick, difficult to hear. I heard him greet Tanya, and then he raced through the situation too fast for me to understand much, though I could tell that the Alaskan vampires were not ignorant of what was going on in Seattle. Then something changed in Carlisle’s voice. â€Å"Oh,† he said, his voice sharper in surprise. â€Å"We didn’t realize . . . that Irina felt that way.† Edward groaned at my side and closed his eyes. â€Å"Damn it. Damn Laurent to the deepest pit of hell where he belongs.† â€Å"Laurent?† I whispered, the blood emptying from my face, but Edward didn’t respond, focused on Carlisle’s thoughts. My short encounter with Laurent early this spring was not something that had faded or dimmed in my mind. I still remembered every word he’d said before Jacob and his pack had interrupted. I actually came here as a favor to her. . . . Victoria. Laurent had been her first maneuver – she’d sent him to observe, to see how hard it might be to get to me. He hadn’t survived the wolves to report back. Though he’d kept up his old ties with Victoria after James’s death, he’d also formed new ties and new relationships. He’d gone to live with Tanya’s family in Alaska – Tanya the strawberry blonde – the closest friends the Cullens had in the vampire world, practically extended family. Laurent had been with them for almost a year previous to his death. Carlisle was still talking, his voice not quite pleading. Persuasive, but with an edge. Then the edge abruptly won out over the persuasion. â€Å"There’s no question of that,† Carlisle said in a stern voice. â€Å"We have a truce. They haven’t broken it, and neither will we. I’m sorry to hear that. . . . Of course. We’ll just have to do our best alone.† Carlisle shut the phone without waiting for an answer. He continued to stare out into the fog. â€Å"What’s the problem?† Emmett murmured to Edward. â€Å"Irina was more involved with our friend Laurent than we knew. She’s holding a grudge against the wolves for destroying him to save Bella. She wants -† He paused, looking down at me. â€Å"Go on,† I said as evenly as I could. His eyes tightened. â€Å"She wants revenge. To take down the pack. They would trade their help for our permission.† â€Å"No!† I gasped. â€Å"Don’t worry,† he told me in a flat voice. â€Å"Carlisle would never agree to it.† He hesitated, then sighed. â€Å"Nor would I. Laurent had it coming† – this was almost a growl – â€Å"and I still owe the wolves for that.† â€Å"This isn’t good,† Jasper said. â€Å"It’s too even a fight. We’d have the upper hand in skill, but not numbers. We’d win, but at what price?† His tense eyes flashed to Alice’s face and away. I wanted to scream out loud as I grasped what Jasper meant. We would win, but we would lose. Some wouldn’t survive. I looked around the room at their faces – Jasper, Alice, Emmett, Rose, Esme, Carlisle . . . Edward – the faces of my family. How to cite The Twilight Saga 3: Eclipse Chapter 13. NEWBORN, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

The Role of Communication in an Organization Samples for Students

Question: Identify a Major Business Incident that occurred at least 2 years ago. Briefly describe the incident and then provide an analysis of the way the Company handled the Issue drawing on the various theories covered in this unit. Answer: Management communication refers to the systematic planning, organizing, implementing, monitoring and revising the various channels of communication both internally and externally. Management communication also involves the dissemination of any information by an organization via networks and communication technologies (Grunig 2013). Management communication involves developing various communication strategies for communication within the organization or between different organizations and managing the flow of communication. Management communication also involves managing the flow of online information (Dozier, Grunig and Grunig 2013). Organizational communication analyses the role of communication in an organization. Organizational communication deals with informing, persuading and promoting goodwill. The communication channel involves both formal and informal flow of communication. The communication channel in an organization involves horizontal, lateral, downward and upward movement (Kramer 2014). Woolworths supermarket is an Australian supermarket that is owned by Woolworths Limited. Woolworths has duopoly in the Australian supermarket along with Coles. Woolworths specializes in grocery products and has 1000 stores in Australia (Woolworths Online 2017). Woolworths aims at satisfying the needs of the customers by continuously monitoring the customer satisfaction. Through the implementation of loyalty programs, the company has built long-term relationships with its customers and has retained its loyal customers. Woolworths has actively engaged with the media in order to manage the reputation of the company and raise awareness regarding the various sustainability issues. The company maintains an integrated network of suppliers through supplier conferences and forums. The company has engaged its customers through in store communications, advertisements, customer contact centres, social media and loyalty programs. However, recent reports have shown certain issues faced by the company as the customers complained that they often found the shelves at the stores out-of-stock. Few customers complained that the prices of Woolworths were constantly rising and the prices of meat and vegetables were at their highest levels. The customers claimed that the services at Woolworths were not satisfactory and were rather poor. Few customers claimed that the most popular brands had been removed from the shelves in the stores (Stacks and Salwen 2014). The customers used the social media websites such as Facebook, Twitter and also used customer helplines in order to share their views and grievances related to these issues. Woolworths was said to have removed a major part of their stocks in the past six months. However, Woolworths initially ignored these complaints and grievances of the customers. Woolworths emphasized that their prices were relatively lower than the prices of its biggest competitor that is Coles. Woolworths did not pay much attention to the issues claimed by the customers. However, later the company admitted that something went wrong seriously with the company. This issue forced the company to incur various business losses. It was reported that the sales growth in the food and liquor segment increased to just 0.2% in the last quarter however, the group sales declined drastically to go in negatives (HA Bijmolt, KRE Huizingh and Krawczyk 2014). The related authorities of the company blamed that the internal metrics of the company was the reason for the arise of such issues as they stated that the company had been measuring the availability of products, prices of the products and the store labor in a wrong manner. The company lost a majority of its customers due to this issue. The customers claimed that the prices of products at Woolworths were much higher than the prices they were supposed to be. Later on, it was found that the prices of around 4000 products at Woolworths were lower than its competitor Coles whereas the other thousands of products were priced higher than the Coles. It was also found that Woolworths had been incorrectly measuring its stock levels and had been checking the availability of products on the store shelves either in the morning or in the mid of the week (Feigin 2016). Reports had shown that Woolworths had been ignoring the negative feedbacks of its customers instead of taking corrective measures and communicating with the customers. The company had been ignoring these negative feedbacks using the net promoter score that is a progenitor of customer loyalty and revenues. This shows that the company did not try to solve the issues by communicating with the customers. Lack of proper communication with the customers resulted in the loss of loyal customers. It is very essential for a company to maintain good communication with its customers in order to keep the customers satisfied and to prevent the shift of the customers towards the competitors. Another issue arose when the company came up with its new online website that was slammed by the customers. Several complaints included the issues with the usability, functionality and product range. The customers claimed that the site either crashed or took too much time to process the orders. Some customers claimed that they could no longer find the products that used to be stocked earlier. The Facebook page of the company was bombarded with the complaints of the customers. Addressing this issue, Woolworths spokesperson stated that the company continuously reviews the feedbacks of the customers in order to ensure that the expectations of the customers related to the services and information provided by the online platform is satisfied (Allwood 2015). However, Woolworths addressed all these issues and accepted its fault via mea culpa. This was the first step taken by the company on the long path of recovery. The customers appreciated the openness of the management as it accepted that it focused on the wrong metrics that led to the dissatisfaction among the customers (Malbon 2013). The major reason for the loss of goodwill was non-acceptance of the mistakes rather than the actual mistakes. Initially the company did not admit that it had committed mistakes and had completely ignored the negative feedbacks of the customers instead of taking remedial actions. Woolworths had been making excuses for the issues for years that has been clearly visible to the outsiders. Woolworths could have solved the issues at the point of its arrival by implementing proper communication strategies. In order to address the issue, Woolworths started reviewing the metrics that it used to measure its performance that included the price, market shares and the net promoter scores. It had slashed costs by approximately $500 million and had invested the same into lower prices. It also laid stress on improving its services by increasing the labors in the stores. Woolworths also diverted $600 million in capex from its under underperforming businesses in order to boost capex in the supermarkets. The company laid more emphasis on the return on capital rather than the increments in the earnings per share. The company decided to improve the incentives to its employees in order to enhance the customer services. The companys spokesperson mentioned that the company is on the path of its recovery but it would take some time to recover its losses and generate profits in the future. An effective communication could help in winning back the confidence of the customers even when the customers of Woo lworths were dissatisfied by the products and services of a company (Coopman and Lull 2014). Communication problems are the issues that develop in a social relationship due to misunderstandings and misinterpretations that causes tension in the personal or professional relationships. Therefore, public speaking becomes an important process of delivering a message to the concerned audience. In case of Woolworths, it was necessary for the management to come forward and give a clear response to the negative feedbacks of the customers instead of neglecting the issue. Since, Woolworths is a large organization and has its customer spread over a large area therefore, it was the responsibility of the management to address the audience as a whole by using public speaking. Public speaking helps a company to understand the customers and conveying the organizational goals to the customers in an efficient manner. Public speaking enables the companies to understand the audience and plan, organize and revise their operations according to the expectations of the customers (Toth 2013). The com panies are not only required to adopt public speaking strategy to address the issues but they are also required to actively respond to the complaints and grievances of the customers over various social networking websites. The process of public speaking involves conveying clear and concise messages that the audience would be interested to listen to (Heath 2013). Public speaking involves effective communication skills supported by good and innovative ideas. Lastly, the public speaking must create an emotional connection with its audience in order to gain its confidence. In order to solve the issue in a more effective manner, Woolworths must adopt the transactional model of communication in which both the sender of message and the receiver interact with each other (Holtzhausen 2013). This would help the company know whether the message was interpreted by the audience in the correct manner or not. This would also implement the dialogue theory of public speaking. The dialogue theory states that different people can interpret the same words in different manner. Therefore, active participation of the audience in the communication process ensures that the audience is able to understand the same message that company is trying to convey. The dialogue theory states that the speakers must take into account the active participation of the audience and must utilize the feedback from the audience in order to determine that the meaning that the company intends to convey is the one that is received by the audience. The public speaking must consider the physical, c ultural, temporal and psychological dimensions of the audience (Austin and Pinkleton 2015). Another major aspect of public speaking is ethical speaking. It becomes necessary for the speakers to begin with ethical intentions. It is important for the companies to convey the truth to the customers. Woolworths addressed the issues in an ethical manner by publically accepting its faults. It is not only necessary for the speakers to convey the message ethically, but it is also necessary for the listeners to understand the message ethically. The companies have their own ethical guidelines and code of conduct that they need to follow. The ethical pyramid is a structured approach to thinking about ethics. This pyramid includes the basic concepts of intent, means and ends. The intent determines the ethics of behavior while the means are the tools that are used to accomplish the goals and the ends are the final results that occur after the specific behavior (Goetsch and Davis 2014). Therefore, it can be stated that it becomes very necessary to understand and analyze the audience in order to draft an effective message. It is very important for the companies to convey a clear message to its audience especially in case of handling grievances of the customers. Woolworths must ensure proper communication with its audience in order to ensure that the customers are satisfied with the active response of the company even when the customer is highly agitated with the products of the company. An effective communication can help in winning back the confidence of the customers even when the customer is dissatisfied by the products and services of a company. The companies must use persuasive speech in order to win the confidence of the customers. Persuasion can only occur when the company carefully listens to the grievances of the customers and urges the customers to engage in a specific behavior as the company believes that the change is in the best interest of the customers . The speakers must ensure that they are aware about the local language of the audience they are addressing. The company speeches must contain clear language, avoid obscenity and use powerful message along with the avoidance of obscure language. Therefore, it can be concluded that Woolworths must use effective communication strategies in order to interact with its customers and solve their grievances in order to retain its loyal customers and to stay ahead of its competitors. Woolworths and Coles sell almost the same products to the customers and the only major difference between them can be of the quality of services and their relationship with its customers. Therefore, Woolworths must focus upon maintaining good customer relationships by using effective communication strategies in order to remain competitive and ensure profits. References: Allwood, A., 2015.Customer Experience Is the Brand: Getting in the Game. BookBaby. Austin, E.W. and Pinkleton, B.E., 2015.Strategic Public Relations Management: Planning and Managing Effective Communication Campaigns(Vol. 10). Routledge. Coopman, S.J. and Lull, J., 2014.Public speaking: The evolving art. Cengage Learning. Dozier, D.M., Grunig, L.A. and Grunig, J.E., 2013.Manager's guide to excellence in public relations and communication management. Routledge. Feigin, L.M., 2016.The effects of protests and boycotts on a brand and its reputation: a case study on Woolworths and boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS)(Doctoral dissertation, The IIE). Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014.Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Grunig, J.E., 2013.Excellence in public relations and communication management. Routledge. HA Bijmolt, T., KRE Huizingh, E. and Krawczyk, A., 2014. Effects of complaint behaviour and service recovery satisfaction on consumer intentions to repurchase on the internet.Internet Research,24(5), pp.608-628. Heath, R.L. ed., 2013.Encyclopedia of public relations. Sage Publications. Holtzhausen, D.R., 2013.Public relations as activism: postmodern approaches to theory practice. Routledge. Kramer, M.W., 2014.Managing uncertainty in organizational communication. Routledge. Malbon, J., 2013. Consumer strategies for avoiding negative online purchasing experiences: A qualitative study. Stacks, D.W. and Salwen, M.B. eds., 2014.An integrated approach to communication theory and research. Routledge. Toth, E.L., 2013. The case for pluralistic studies of public relations: Rhetorical, critical, and systems perspectives.Rhetorical and critical approaches to public relations, pp.3-15. Woolworths Online. (2017). Woolworths Supermarket - Buy Groceries Online. [online] Available at: https://www.woolworths.com.au/ [Accessed 11 May 2017].

Friday, March 27, 2020

The Boozer By Choe Inhon Essays - Cinema Of New Zealand,

The Boozer by Ch'oe Inhon A Brief Commentary on the Meaning, Societal Relevance, and Use of Subtlety in Ch'oe Inhon's The Boozer "Whenever a shot of that rotgut washed the inside of his everinsatiable mouth he knew just how much more dense his life was going to get" (Ch'oe, 109). Ch'oe Inho's The Boozer offers a dismal glimpse into the life of the lower classes during the period of Korean modernization. Although The Boozer was written in the 1960s, the story does not provide an allegorical account of particular events during the authoritarian rule of Park Chung Hee. Rather, Ch'oe uses the setting of a working class community to convey the suffering of an orphan boy over the loss of his parents during one of his escapades into the tavern life of the town. In addition, Ch'oe withholds from the reader the most important piece of information, that the boy indeed has no living parents, until the end of the story. Through a clever manipulation of information, The Boozer accomplishes the latter task, while giving us a vivid sense of the boy's traumatic memory of his parents' deaths and of the desolate life of the wor king class community. In the first few pages of the story, we are lead to believe that the boy is looking for his father to call him home to the bedside of his dying wife. The boy informs the drinkers in the tavern that he has seen his mother's condition worsen and that she has sent him to get her husband. But even before this, Ch'oe has already dropped a subtle hint that the father is gone. Here is how the boy describes his father: "Why, you'd know him! He has a great big mole over one eye. He always smelled like onions, and he always went around with cloves of garlic in his back pocket. And, they said he always cried when he drank." (104) The boy starts his description in the present tense and shifts to the past tense as he recounts details about his father's habits. This passage alone casts the first shadow of doubt on the "living" status of the father. In particular, the phrase "they said he...." suggests that the boy experienced his father's death at an early age and knows him partly from reputation. This use of the past tense may be too subtle to notice upon a first reading and even the impression that the father may be long gone is erased as the boy later speaks about his father in the present tense. There are numerous other indicators that mislead us into believing the authenticity of the boy's mission. For example, the boy is quite determined in his mission. "I'll look all night.... If I can just find my father, everything will be okay My father's different from you people. Father may be a boozer, but there's nothing he can't do if he sets his mind to it. You know, once he took copper and made it into gold. Gold!" (105). In this passage we also encounter the boy's genuine admiration for his father and the security the thought of his father provides, as if the latter were alive and well, waiting for his son to find him. In addition, he shows concern about his father's sobriety, so that the latter can face the serious moment of his wife's death in full possession of his faculties. There is one moment where it appears that the father may have already returned to his wife and, after her death, gone back out to drink: "Your father left, kid. Said he was going to the widow's tavern" (107). The inconsistency here is that the boy is unperturbed by the barmaid's usage of the word "widow." But, given his drunken state, we may forgive the boy for o verlooking this. Later, as the boy continues wandering through the town, we are informed that "He knew well where it was he was going to. He had never forgotten this route, no matter how drunk he got" (112). This is the first direct hint that the boy's actions are not spontaneous attempts to find his father but a part of a well-established routine that he follows after a day